Introduction: A World of Titans
On July 6th, 2021, on a hot summer day in the Greek capital, I decided to visit the Acropolis, The mythical hill-fortress of antiquity where one of the most remarkable landmarks of Western civilization stands: The Parthenon.
As I progressed over the cobblestone pathways of the old town, I got my first glimpse of the majesty of the place.
The march to the top was arduous, the heat intense, and the screaming sound of the cicadas made the experience a true challenge of wit and spirit. The surrounding ruins gave me the impression of having crossed the gates of times to an era long gone, some 2500 years ago, during the time of Pericles and the city-states at war.
Only a few more steps to the top were left, and as I lifted my head to admire the grandeur of the temple door, I realized how impressive the accomplishments here were:
A world of Titans!
Ancient Greece deeply captivates the modern world. Every year around 1 million visitors explore the Parthenon and wander around the ruins because they're sure the place and the culture have something important to teach them.
But what is it exactly? As we wander around and see this place with our own eyes, we can only start to wonder:
What happened? How did Athenian democracy fall? How could a civilization reach so much greatness and then lose it all?
In this article, I will focus on telling such a story—the tragic and far too human tale of the premature ending of one society. By doing so, I intend to extract lessons and principles that can be drawn through the studies of these historical events. Indeed, in any compelling stories or myths, the primordial aim remains to learn from pasts mistakes. Thus, we can glean wisdom from the actions of the individuals involved.
404 B.C, Phrygia
We are in 404 B.C., in Phrygia, present-day Turkey. The former Athenian strategist Alcibiades takes refuge with his mistress. He's got a lot of enemies and a bounty on his head. It is necessary to say that this man, described as handsome and particularly intelligent, is a master in the art of betrayal.
During his life, he served Athens, Sparta, and even the hereditary enemy of the Greeks: Persia!
It is, therefore, difficult to say who ordered his assassination.
His mistress's brothers set her house on fire, forcing Alcibiades out, sword in hand. He is then pierced by arrows and spears and dies without being able to fight.
This colorful and romantic character, who deserves his own movie, has strongly marked his contemporaries. Alcibiade's life marks a turning event in ancient times: the Peloponnesian War and the fall of Athens.
But how could a single man have ruined a city as radiant as Athens so quickly?
Before answering this question, let us first look at the situation in Greece in the fifth century B.C.
The Greek world comprised hundreds of autonomous city-states called Polis, of varying importance. Often in conflict, these cities shared the same language and values: religion, customs, and morals were similar.
The Greek presence extended West to Sicily and southern France, and to the East, to the Cyclades and on the coasts of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). In the sixth century B.C., these Anatolian cities were under the influence of the wealthiest and most powerful Empire of its time: the Persian empire of the Achaemenid dynasty.
With a devouring appetite, this Empire quickly seeks to impose its hegemony (domination) on the European continent. As a result, an antagonism formed between the two cultures during the following years: the Persian kings of quasi-divine natures were perceived as despots by the Greeks, who developed the concept of isonomia:
Isonomia /ἡ ἰσονομία/: «The equality of all before the law.»
It is upon this notion that the Athenian democracy takes its roots. Though this form of government has been practiced for millennia, absolute monarchy, aristocratic rule, and oligarchy were the norm in most political systems of the era. The legendary Polis of Athens undertook what would eventually become the most radical political experiment in history.
When the Persians tried to invade Greece in 490 and 480 B.C., they first tried to break up the Greek cities through an intense diplomatic campaign. The ambassadors will demand "Earth and Water" from cities, a formula designating the submission to the Empire.
Athens and Sparta refused, throwing the emissaries from the top of a cliff or precipitating them to the bottom of a well. The Greco-Persian wars had begun.
Thanks to their alliance, Athenians and Spartans defeated the Persians during the famous Thermopylae, Salamis, and Marathon battles. But despite this apparent unification, the Greek cities wished to continue their autonomous development. The period from 479 to 431 B.C. constituted the Golden Age of Athens.
For the Persians, this defeat is peripheral, minor even. But the psychological impact of this victory is enormous on the Greek world. Athens stands out as the "great city-state" which stood up to this almighty Empire. The Persian Empire, now no longer perceived as invincible, this victory strengthened the expansionist ambitions of the Athenian maritime power.
Sparta abandoned the Aegean Sea in favor of the Athenians, who formed a Confederation of cities to drive out the Persians of this myriad of islands. Its headquarters are located in Delos, but Athens runs the operations.
Rapidly, this "Delian League" constituted a true Maritime Empire controlled by the Athenians. A Thalassocracy, as it is called, was being set up.
Slowly but surely, a rivalry grew between the great cities of Athens and Sparta. If Athens became hegemonic over the sea, Sparta still remained undefeated on land. This hatred evolved into a peripheral confrontation between the "Delian League" and the "Peloponnesian League," which formed around Sparta.
In 454 B.C., Athens transferred the Delian League's treasure to its own city to exploit it. It was around this time that the construction of the Acropolis began.
In 449 B.C., peace was finally signed with the Persians. This event should have logically led to the dissolution of the "Delian League." Still, Athens continued to demand the Phoros - a tribute to be paid by the Allied cities - clearly showing its domination over the other cities of the league. In case of non-payment, Athens would intervene militarily. It was «Trireme diplomacy.»
In this favorable context for Athens, Alcibiades was born around 450 B.C.
Alcibiades (450 - 404 B.C.), The Golden Boy of Athens
Coming from noble birth, Alcibiabes was adopted at his father's death by the most powerful man of the Athenian political system: Pericles.
Fate favored him: he was wealthy and lucky to be particularly handsome and athletic. He even won chariot racing events during the Olympic Games, covering him with honor and glory.
Let us not forget that during that time, physical beauty was highly revered. When combined with moral virtues, these qualities formed the vision of the ideal man in Ancient Greece.
Alcibiades hung out with the great minds of his time: Pericles, but also the great philosopher Socrates, with whom he was given an erotic relationship, which was not taboo in ancient Greece.
His education and sharp intelligence made him an eloquent man who could persuade, convince and seduce crowds. As a result, a brilliant career opened up for him. But Alcibiades had many flaws and not the least. He was vain, arrogant, and insolent, and his beauty and prestige made him a notorious womanizer.
His numerous affairs with women caused him serious issues, as we shall see later.
To this must be added his pronounced taste for luxury, his lack of self-control, a lavish predilection for excesses of all kinds, and a total absence of moral sense.
For many historians, his ambition and lack of consideration for the people constituted a turning point in Athenian political life. With Alcibiades, democracy became a pretext for careerist aims, the only objective being power. Alcibiades entered politics in a context troubled by war.
Let us now return to the causes of this war between Sparta and Athens, called the Peloponnesian War.
The Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 B.C.)
The situation continued to deteriorate since the end of the Persian wars. These two cities were, at first, mainly opposed in their functioning:
The Spartan oligarchy opposed Athenian democracy.
Without going into too many details about the institutions, we can note some significant differences between the two systems:
- Elected Athenian Strategists faced the Spartan dynastic kings.
- A small elitist assembly in Sparta opposed the Ecclesia of Athens, where nearly 40,000 citizens sat.
The Ecclesia /ἐκκλησία/: «The assembly of citizens is where laws are voted, and strategists elected.»
In a sort of "Cold War," Athens and Sparta supported the cities that followed their political doctrines. The smaller city-states were to be torn between these two political systems, often provoking civil wars and alliance overthrows.
Both cities had a professional army, even if the Spartans' military was well known to be the most powerful on land. On the Athenian side, the fleet represented its primary asset.
Unable to find a compromise, the conflict between the two leagues finally broke out in May 431 B.C. The Peloponnesian War had just begun.
The First War (431 - 421 B.C.)
The first phase of the war lasted ten years and mainly resembled a war of attrition. Pericles, ruler of Athens at the time, opted for an original strategy, but it turned out later to be flawed.
He decided to shelter the entire population behind the long walls that connected the city of Athens to its main port, Piraeus, supplying the inhabitants by sea.
Pericles wanted to wage a maritime war, thus avoiding a direct confrontation with the Spartans. But plague ravaged the city and killed a third of the Athenian population in 430 B.C., including Pericles. This was due to the excessive concentration of inhabitants behind the walls. For Sparta, the decimation of Athens and its leaders proved that the gods were on their side.
Sparta used this opportunity to pillage and plunder the Athenian countryside for ten years, while Athens had to rely on hit-and-run tactics along the coasts of the Peloponnese.
The Peace of Nicias (421 B.C.)
In 421 B.C., exhausted, Athens and Sparta agreed to sign the first peace treaty called The Peace of Nicias, named after the instigator of the treaty. But this peace turned out to be very precarious. No one seemed to be satisfied.
After enrolling in the army in 420 B.C., Alcibiades entered politics following the Peace of Nicias. Opportunist, he opposed Nicias by claiming to represent Athenian ambition and imperialism. However, Alcibiades never ceased to intrigue indecisive cities like Argos, which constantly changed sides during the conflict.
All these reversals of alliances increased political instability between the partisans of war and peace, between Alcibiades and Nicias, to the point that a procedure of ostracism would target Alcibiades.
In Ancient Athens, Ostracism /ὀστρακισμός/ was the exile of a politician considered dangerous or too ambitious for ten years.
Through skillful political maneuvers, Alcibiades managed to avoid this threat of banishment. He was now the war party's leader and drafted his grand plan for the Athenian people: the annexation of Sicily.
Pretexting to help the allied city of Segesta in their conflict with the powerful Syracuse, the plan was to create an Empire in the Western Mediterranean. This would allow Athens to control wheat imports to the Peloponnese, therefore, adding economic pressure on Sparta.
The Sicilian Expedition (415-413 B.C.)
In 415 B.C., the decision was made to send more than a hundred ships to Sicily under Alcibiades' command, but also of Nicias and Lamachos. However, an unexpected event complicated the expedition shortly before the fleet's departure.
On the night of June 7th, 415 B.C., the status of the God Hermes was found desecrated. Another scandal was added to this: the parody of The Eleusinian Mysteries, a ceremony that constituted one of Athens's most sacred religious celebrations.
Young drunken people coming out of a banquet are accused. The name Alcibiades comes up in both cases. These desecrations provoked a severe political crisis. An investigation was open, but paranoia was growing.
While waiting for the investigation results, the fleet managed to disembark in Sicily and seize the city of Catania, north of Syracuse.
But problems arose quickly:
1. The three strategists did not agree on how to proceed.
2. Alcibiades was accused of sacrilege in the investigation and had to return to Athens for trial.
Fearing that he would be unjustly condemned he preferred to flee and defected to Sparta. While the Athenians continued the expedition, Alcibiades advised the Spartan king to send an army to support Syracuse.
In 414 B.C., the situation reverses in favor of the Spartans thanks to General Gylippus despite the arrival of Athenian reinforcements. The decisive battle took place on the Epipolae. Nicias' armies are crushed, and 7,000 Athenian prisoners are starved in open quarries. The few survivors are sold into slavery.
The Sicilian Expedition was a disaster from which Athens never truly recovered, with around 200 lost ships and 50,000 fallen soldiers.
The Second War (413–404 B.C.)
Following the destruction of the Sicilian Expedition, Alcibiades advised the Spartans to wage war directly near Athens, in Attica. By conquering the fortress of Decelea, the Spartans could cut land supplies to the city. Yet, the disruption of the nearby silver mines worsened the maritime city's financial situation. Alcibiades knew perfectly well the flaws of the system he grew up in.
To drive the nail a little deeper, he even suggested cutting off Athens from its Ionian allies (Ionia was a region on the western coast of present-day Turkey) and bringing the war to Thrace. He also got the Persians and Spartans together against Athens in these regions, earning him significant victories.
Nevertheless, the situation tended to stabilize, and Sparta began to doubt the loyalty of the former Athenian. Indeed, Alcibiades found nothing better to do than seduce the Spartan king's wife, Agis II. Then, preferring to flee before being assassinated, he joined the Persian satrap Tissaphernes.
Satrap /sætrəp/: «A satrap is a kind of provincial governor in the Persian Empire.»
This time, he advocated a policy of conciliation and temperance. But, in reality, he wished to return to Athens by maneuvering the two warring cities through the intermediary of the Persian governor.
Through skillful underground manipulations, Alcibiades managed to orchestrate an oligarchic coup in 411 B.C. in Athens. He succeeded in undermining the last semblance of democratic government and replacing it with an oligarchy, a system where power is concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy individuals. Alcibiades recognized that the new oligarchic government needed outside support, so he portrayed himself as a moderate democrat to gain their trust.
This strategy led to his election as Strategos, a crucial military leader in ancient Athens. However, despite being elected, Alcibiades did not immediately return to Athens, possibly due to ongoing concerns about his safety or other strategic considerations.
The third and final phase of the war shifted towards the Hellespont (the ancient name for the narrow strait between the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, now called the Dardanelles), Ionia, and the Bosporus. Alcibiades remained a skilled military leader and played a significant role in the victorious battles of Abydos and Cyzicus for Athens. He then posed as a savior. Alcibiades finally managed to return to his birth city.
But the war continued, and since the Sicilian Expedition, Sparta decided to equip itself with a powerful fleet under the leadership of a talented navarch (an admiral in ancient Greece) named Lysander, who decisively crushed the Athenian maritime Empire with Persian support at the Battle of Aegospotami.
Ultimately defeated and forced to surrender, Sparta established an oligarchic government subservient to them in Athens called the "Thirty Tyrants." It was designed to ensure Athenian compliance with Spartan demands.
404 B.C. marked the fall of Athens and the emergence of Sparta as the dominant power in the Greek World.
Alcibiades, still considered a supporter of democracy, had to flee again, facing death threats. The Thirty Tyrants demanded his execution. When he died in the arms of his mistress in 404 BC, he was 46 years old.
No one really knows who ordered his assassination since he had so many enemies: the Spartans, the Thirty, Persian satraps, or even the families of the numerous young women he had seduced.
Key Takeaway Lessons
The Peloponnesian War, a protracted struggle between the legendary city-states of Athens and Sparta, provides a fertile ground for examining the interplay of power, ambition, and human nature. The tribulation of Alcibiades' life offers a wealth of wisdom and insight into the machinations of power. By studying his actions and the events that unfolded around him, we can harvest valuable knowledge and principles applicable to our modern daily lives.
Reflecting on these lessons will enable us to navigate the complexities of modern life with greater wisdom, resilience, and effectiveness. It is also essential for recognizing and avoiding the pitfalls that led to Alcibiades' downfall, ultimately guiding us toward better decision-making and self-improvement.
Lesson I: The Perils of Unbridled Ambition
Alcibiades' relentless pursuit of power and influence ultimately proved to be his undoing. His insatiable appetite for personal gain led him to betray his city-state and allies repeatedly, culminating in his eventual assassination. This cautionary tale teaches us the importance of tempering our ambitions and ensuring that they align with the greater good.
Principle: Exercise restraint and align your personal ambitions with the interests of your allies or organization.
Modern Example: Imagine an employee in a company who is solely focused on climbing the corporate ladder. They may engage in office politics, backstabbing, and manipulation to achieve their goals. Eventually, their actions could lead to resentment from their colleagues, tarnishing their reputation and harming their career prospects.
Solution: Practice self-awareness and reflect on your motivations. Channel your ambition into positive actions that benefit both you and those around you. Seek mentorship and guidance to help you grow professionally and ethically.
Lesson II: The Value of Loyalty and Trust
Throughout his career, Alcibiades demonstrated a flagrant disregard for loyalty and trust, qualities essential for forging and maintaining strong and meaningful relationships. His repeated betrayals eroded the confidence of his allies, leaving him vulnerable to retribution. In contrast, leaders who cultivate trust and loyalty can establish a solid foundation for long-term success.
Principle: Honor your commitments, remain true to your allies, and build a reputation for reliability.
Modern Example: Consider a group of friends where one individual consistently breaks promises and betrays the trust of others. Over time, the group may distance themselves from that person, leaving them isolated and without the support of their friends.
Solution: Cultivate trustworthiness and reliability by keeping your promises and being there for others when they need you. This will strengthen your relationships and help you build a network of support.
Lesson III: The Importance of Strategic Alliances
The Peloponnesian War was characterized by a complex web of alliances, with city-states constantly vying for supremacy. Navigating these intricate relationships required skillful diplomacy and a keen understanding of the balance of power. By carefully choosing their allies and nurturing these relationships, wise leaders strengthened their positions and increased their influence.
Principle: Forge alliances with partners who share your values and objectives, and avoid those prone to treachery and selfishness.
Modern Example: A freelancer seeking mutually beneficial partnerships with others in their industry can create a strong network of collaborators. In contrast, a freelancer who constantly competes with or undermines others may struggle to find support when they need it most.
Solution: Actively seek out partnerships and collaborations with like-minded individuals in your industry, whether you are an entrepreneur or working within a company. Nurture these relationships by offering value and support and openly communicating your goals and expectations. This collaborative mindset will create a strong network of allies, fostering collective growth and success for all involved.
Lesson IV: Adaptability and Foresight
The shifting landscape of the Peloponnesian War demanded adaptability and foresight from its participants. Leaders who could anticipate change and adjust their strategies accordingly were better equipped to seize opportunities and withstand adversity. This ability to adapt and evolve is a crucial skill in both ancient and modern times.
Principle: Remain flexible and responsive to changing circumstances while staying true to your core principles and objectives.
Modern Example: A person who rigidly adheres to their routine and resists change may struggle to adapt when faced with unexpected challenges or new opportunities. In contrast, someone who remains open to new experiences and ideas is better equipped to navigate the uncertainties of life.
Solution: Cultivate a growth mindset and embrace change as an opportunity for learning and self-improvement. Stay informed about industry trends and developments to ensure you're prepared for future shifts. Maintain a flexible approach to problem-solving and be open to trying new strategies and techniques.
By examining the story of Alcibiades and the Peloponnesian War, we can extract timeless lessons that resonate in our modern world, such as the importance of tempered ambition, loyalty, strategic alliances, and adaptability. The fall of Athens and Alcibiades' life symbolize the excesses of imperialism and unchecked greed, offering insights into universal themes like democratic crises, demagoguery, personal ambitions, and the loss of focus on the greater good. As a Greek tragedy with an epic scope, this story serves as a valuable reminder of the intricate dance of power that shapes human society. By learning from the past, we can apply these insights to navigate the complexities of our own lives with grace and skill, ensuring these lessons are widely contemplated today.
If you enjoyed this article, please don't hesitate to subscribe to my newsletter and, most importantly, leave a comment to share your thoughts! Also, if you'd like to learn more about the subject, I have included bibliographic references below for your convenience.
References and Bibliography
- Hanson, Victor Davis. A War Like No Other: How the Athenians and Spartans Fought the Peloponnesian War. New York: Random House, 2005.
- Kagan, Donald. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Viking, 2003.
- Plutarch. Lives: Alcibiades and Coriolanus, Lysander and Sulla. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1916.
- Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. Translated by Rex Warner. London: Penguin Books, 1972.
- Xenophon. Hellenica. Translated by Carleton L. Brownson. London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1921.